Saturday, March 21, 2020
Brayton Cycle Lab Report Essay Example Brayton Cycle Lab Report Paper Brayton Cycle Lab Report Paper In this one hour course, the open, simple Brannon Cycle used for stationary rower generation is considered providing thrust instead of power output. In order to keep the scope of the thrust analysis simple, the working fluid exiting gas turbine expands to the atmospheric conditions final working fluid exit pressure is equal to the ambient pressure. The Brannon Cycle thermal efficiency is presented only for the air as the working fluid. The thermal efficiency derivation is presented with a simple mathematical approach. The Brannon Cycle is presented in a T s diagram and its major performance trends (specific propulsion output and propulsion output) are looted in a few figures as a function of compression ratio, gas turbine inlet temperature and working fluid mass flow rate. It should be noted that this online course does not deal with costs (capital, operational or maintenance). In this course, the student gets familiar with the Brannon Cycle, its components, T s diagram, operation and major performance trends. This course includes a multiple choice quiz at the end. Brannon Cycle (Gas Turbine) for Propulsion Application Analysis Performance Objectives At the conclusion of this course, the student will: Understand basic energy conversion engineering assumptions and equations Know basic components of the Brannon Cycle (Gas Turbine) and its T s diagram Be familiar with the Brannon Cycle operation Understand general Brannon Cycle performance trends Brannon Cycle (Gas Turbine) for Propulsion Application Analysis Introduction Over the years, gas turbine has become the premier propulsion generation system. Gas turbines are compact, lightweight, easy to operate and come in sizes ranging from several hundred kilowatts to hundreds of megawatts. Gas turbines require relatively low capital investment, have high operating flexibility, high thermal efficiency and can be used for various industrial applications. Gas reburies can help provide reliable propulsion to meet the future demand using both high and low heat content fuels, with low emissions. Table of Contents Brannon Cycle (Gas Turbine) for Propulsion Application 2 Analysis Assumptions. .. 9 Governing Equations 10 Input Data . 10 Results 11 Conclusions.. 12 Brannon Cycle (Gas Turbine) for Propulsion Application This section provides a Brannon Cycle analysis when the working fluid is air. In the presented Brannon Cycle analysis, only air is considered as the working fluid behaving as a perfect gas specific heat has a constant value. Ideal gas state equation is valid pa = ART. A gas turbine is a heat engine that uses a high temperatur e, high pressure gas as the working fluid. Combustion of a fuel in air is usually used to produce the needed temperatures and pressures in the gas turbine, which is why gas turbines are often referred to as combustion turbines. Expansion of the high temperature, high pressure working fluid takes place in the gas turbine. The gas turbine shaft rotation drives an electric generator and a compressor for the working fluid, air, used in the gas turbine combustion. Many gas turbines also use a heat exchanger called a recuperate to impart urbane exhaust heat into the combustions air/fuel mixture. Gas turbines produce high quality heat that can be used to generate steam for combined heat and power and combined-cycle applications, significantly enhancing efficiency. Air is compressed, concentrically, along line 1-2 by a compressor and it enters a combustion. At a constant pressure, combustion takes place (fuel is added to the combustion and the air temperature raises) and/or heat gets added to air. High temperature air exits the combustion at point 3. Then air enters a gas turbine where an isentropic expansion occurs, producing power. Air exits the gas turbine at point 4. It should be mentioned that air at point 1 enters the compressor and the cycle is repeated. Figure 1 presents a Brannon Cycle schematic layout. Figure 1 Brannon Cycle Schematic Layout Figure 2 presents a Brannon Cycle temperature vs.. Entropy diagram. Figure 2 Brannon Cycle Temperature vs.. Entropy Diagram In order to keep the scope of thrust analysis simple, air exiting turbine expands to the atmospheric conditions exit pressure is equal to the ambient pressure (Pl = pa). It should be pointed out that this material deals with the open Brannon Cycle.
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
Topic Areas of Environmental Sociology Environmental sociology is a subfield of the wider discipline in which researchers and theorists focus on the relationships between society and the environment. The subfield took shape following the environmental movement of the 1960s. Within this subfield, sociologists might examine specific institutions and structures like law, politics, and economy, and their relationships to environmental conditions; and also on the relationship between group behavior and environmental conditions, like for example the environmental implications of waste disposal and recycling. Importantly, environmental sociologists also study how environmental conditions affect the everyday lives, economic livelihood, and public health of populations. Environmental Sociology Topic Areas Climate changeÃ is arguably the most important topic of research among environmental sociologists today. Sociologists investigate the human, economic, and political causes of climate change, and they investigate the effects that climate change has on many aspects of social life, like behavior, culture, values, and the economic health of populations experiencing its effects. Central to the sociological approach to climate change is the study of the relationship between economy and environment. A key analytic focus within this subfield is the particular effects that a capitalist economyone premised on continual growthhas on the environment. Environmental sociologists who study this relationship might focus on the implications of consumption of natural resources in processes of production, and methods of production and resource recapture that aim to be sustainable, among other things. The relationship between energy and environment is another important topic among environmental sociologists today. This relationship is intimately connected to the first two listed, as the burning of fossil fuels to power industry is recognized by climate scientists to be the central driver of global warming, and thus climate change. Some environmental sociologists who focus on energy study the way different populations think about energy use and its implications, and how their behavior is connected to these ideas; and they might study the way energy policy shapes behavior and outcomes. Politics, law, and public policy, and the relationships these have to environmental conditions and problems are also areas of focus among environmental sociologists. As institutions and structures that shape corporate and individual behavior, they have indirect effects on the environment. Sociologists who focus on these areas investigate topics like the extent to which and through what mechanisms laws regarding emissions and pollution are enforced; how people act collectively to shape them; and the forms of power that might enable or prevent them from doing so, among other things. Many environmental sociologists study the relationship between social behavior and environment. In this area there is a large degree of overlap between environmental sociology and the sociology of consumption, as many sociologists recognize the important and consequential relationships between consumerismÃ and consumer behavior, and environmental problems and solutions. Environmental sociologists also examine how social behaviors, like theÃ use of transportation, consumption of energy, and waste and recycling practices, shape environmental outcomes, as well as how environmental conditions shape social behavior. Another important area of focus among environmental sociologists is the relationship between inequality and environment. Numerous studies have documented that income, racial, and gender inequality make the populations that experience them more likely to experience negative environmental outcomes like pollution, proximity to waste, and lack of access to natural resources. The study of environmental racism is, in fact, a specific area of focus within environmental sociology. Environmental sociologists continue to study these relationships today, and the way populations and institutions respond to them, and they also examine them on a global scale, looking at the way populations among nations have differing relationships to the environment based on relative privilege and wealth. Notable Environmental Sociologists Notable environmental sociologists today include John Bellamy Foster, John Foran, Christine Shearer, Richard Widick, and Kari Marie Norgaard. The late Dr. William Freudenberg is considered an important pioneer in this subfield who made great contributions to it, and Indian scientists and activist Vandana Shiva is considered an honorary environmental sociologist by many. Where to Find More Information on Environmental Sociology To learn more about this vibrant and growing subfield of sociology, visit the website for the American Sociological Associations section on Environment and Technology, and review the research published in journals likeÃ Environmental Sociology, Human Ecology, Nature and Culture, Organization and Environment, Population and Environment, Rural Sociology, and Society and Natural Resources. Students interested in pursuing environmental sociology will find many undergraduate programs with a focus in this area, as well as an increasing number of graduate sociology and interdisciplinary programs that offer specialized study and training.
Monday, February 17, 2020
Management Strategy Perspectives and Paradoxes - Essay Example In such environ, it is important for an organisation to find a 'differential aspect' of its product or service in order to survive the market competencies, otherwise the organisation will be driven out of the business ruthlessly. "Having a competitive advantage is like having a gun in knife fight". The paper explores this statement and illustrates the key factors through which a firm can attain this competitive gun while all the competitors remain fighting with their competitive knives. It goes for a gross understanding of the term 'competitive advantage', realising how it can be interpreted as 'a gun in the knife fight', plus analysing and examining a bunch of important issues underlying this concept. The focus of this paper remains to be the factors that need to be addressed by an organisation in its quest to dig out a competitive advantage to create and maintain its position in the market that is unbeatable for its competitors in a specific point in time. There happen to be several areas where a firm can manage to obtain a competitive advantage against its competitors. These areas are discussed in this paper with the help of the literature available on the given subject. "Having a competitive advantage is like having a gun in a knife fight". Consider a fight in which everybody has got a knife as weapon and using it in all ways to win the battle. During this fight, one of the fighters manages to acquire a gun. A gun in a knife fight implies having a weapon or an advantage through which any battle or competition could be won in way that nobody else could be able to claim victory for a long time. In the context of businesses, this statement entails having a competitive advantage or that aspect of an organisation, which can be utilised to fight the battle of competition and gain a superior weapon over other competitors. An exploration of this statement first of all lies in a profound understanding of the term competitive advantage and the necessary issues associated with it. The statement will be explored further in the paper after an illustration of what actually is meant by the term 'competitive advantage'. A competitive advantage is simply an aspect of the organisation that it possesses or offers to the customers. In order for an organisational aspect to constitute as a 'competitive advantage', it has to be unique in the market not adopted by any other current or potential firm in the market. This phenomenon can also be understood in the words of Barney (1991, p102) as, "a firm is said to have competitive advantage when it is implementing a value creating strategy not simultaneously being implemented by any current or potential competitors". This value strategy can be in any form, as long as it is providing benefit to the customers and the organisation directly or indirectly. For instance, if a firm manages to produce its products at a lower cost than all other firms in the market, it is a direct benefit to the customer in the form of reduced prices and an indirect benefit to the organisation in the shape of enhanced sales. This can only become possible when the firm has identified uni que ways to lower the product costs, either unknown or inapplicable to other firms. Porter (1985, p3) illustrates the conception of competitive advantage as the ability of a firm to create value for its customers in a way that proposes more benefit
Monday, February 3, 2020
Hard Treatment - Assignment Example The eighteenth century corporal punishment was done through the offenderÃ¢â¬â¢s body. In the nineteenth century, the imprisonment move was merged with other penalties that prompted the decrease of the human rights. This was a response to the wrongdoers. In that case, Kleinig views imprisonment as a form of reforming ones villainous character or immoral habit. Below are the some of positive and negative constraints according to the kleinigÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view of the prisoners subjected to punishments. Kleinig has found that cruelty inflicts physical pain on the prisoners. This has been extremely exaggerated to the general suffering of these people. He argues that such actions which come in with cruelty are imposed to these people to cause aguish and fear in them for the respect of the department stuff. Some of these cruel activities done to the prisoners may end up to injuries either mentally or physically. Kleinig believe that both individuals and institutions are cruel to the p risoners. According to the research, many deaths that are reported from the prisons are caused by the prisoners themselves. In that case, he has notified that though punishments are given to rectify and rehabilitate the wrongdoers, being cruelty would be excessive punishment which would not be helpful but only destroying. This would also limit the people to achieving the goals that are accepted in the social life. According to Kleinig, both cruelties to sentient and rational sentient is an act of dehumanizing. On the other hand, the cruelty suffering undergone by the prisoners tends to undermine their human distinctiveness which acts as their capacity for appraisal. On the other hand, many individuals and institutions tent to give unusual punishments such as boiling them in oil, quartering or drawing them or burning them on their stakes. In such case, kleinig has found such act to be unusual and cruel hence dehumanizing. According to Klenig, though the prisoners should adhere to the punishments given to them, they should be permitted to have the human dignity. Even though are not given the time to exercise their human rights, human dignity is fundamental to all human beings. In that chase, he argues that the prison institutions should express the non humiliation which is so common among the prison institutions, in order to avoid prisonersÃ¢â¬â¢ rejection from the human common wealth. Kleinig also tackles chaining of the prisoners. He says that this is humiliating them and expresses in humane. On the other hand, Kleinig, touches the sentencing of a prisoner. He says that giving a long sentence to the prisoners is contrary with the myth of correcting and rehabilitating the prisoners. Instead, they lose their human dignity and have less time to enjoy their lives. In that case, they face various challenges such as being chained from the wrist to the ankle, perform hard and tiresome labor, being under life surveillance and be denied to receive any assistance from the outside. Kleinig says that when one is forced in to such life style, various opportunities are disqualified. Firstly, they do not perform their parental responsibility. This is because; the long term imprisonment punishment does not allow one to interact with his or her family. Secondly, a man would not be able to enjoy his marital authority. In continuation, Kleinig, gives in humanness as another constraint that leads to hard treatment. In that case, according to him, inhumane is the act of disregarding the human sensibility as human beings.
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Analysis of Young Adults Attitudes Towards Sex and Shyness KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE TOWARDS SEXUALITY AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH SHYNESS AMONG YOUNG ADULTS Introduction: Sex refers to whether or not a person is male or female, whether a person has a penis or vagina. Sex is also commonly used as an abbreviation to refer to sexual intercourse. Sexuality refers to the total expression of who we are as a human being, our maleness or our femaleness. Our sexuality begins at birth and ends at death. Everyone is a sexual being. Our sexuality is interplay between body image, gender identity, gender role, sexual orientation, eroticism, genitals, intimacy, relationships, love and affection. A persons sexuality includes his or her attitudes, values, knowledge and behaviors. How people express their sexuality is influenced by their families, culture, society, faith and beliefs. Sources of sexual learning include parents, friends, religion, culture, media, environment, law, school, teachers, books, etc. Knowledge Myth according to Merriam Webster Dictionary is an idea or story that is believed by many people but that is not true. Myth comes into existence due to lack of scientific knowledge with regard to particular idea. Attitude is positive or negative expression towards a person, place, thing, or event (the attitude object). Gordon Allport define attitude as the most distinctive and indispensable concept in contemporary social psychology. Attitude can be formed from a persons past and present experiences. Attitude is also measurable and changeable as well as influencing the persons emotion and behavior. Attitude towards sex Shyness is the feeling of apprehension, lack of comfort or awkwardness especially when a person is in proximity to other people. This commonly occurs in new situations or with unfamiliar people. Shyness can be a characteristic of people who have low self-esteem. Stronger forms of shyness are usually referred to as social anxiety or social phobia. Sexuality is a vital aspect of human development with biological, psychological and social components, which may facilitate identity, well-being, pleasure, affectionate, relationships and reproduction (Formenti 2005; Ahmadi 2010). Sexuality also refers to the human potential of consciousness and specific forms of behaviour that are likely to change at different stages of life (Tiefer 1995; Zubarew 2006). In reality, the sexual behaviour of young people is influenced by attitudes and values that start to develop long before they begin to attend school. Moreover, during schooling, young people continue to be strongly influenced by messages from the family, peers and the media. Sexual offences in general are increasing, according to National Crime Records Bureau, Crime in India 2011 Statistics, Sexual Harassment (Sec.509 IPC) cases registered are 9746 (0.9), 9966 (0.9), 10950 (1.0) 12214 (1.1), 11009 (0.9) and 9961 (0.8) in the year 2001, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010. There are many cases which are not reported and under reported cases still many are pending. The crimes related to sex are increasing still as days are passing, the reason behind it is just a gratification or its all about the misconception and experiments which are committed by young adults? Upcoming of new websites and updates with regard to sexuality are increasing. These entire information shows positive side and very less on its disadvantages. This has brought confusion among young adults. The developmental age leads to curiosity which in turn leads to experimentation and at last the results will lead to tragedy in individual life. All these have lots of implication on human potential to become responsible citizen but youth is not properly directed and they are not empowered with the skill to have a healthy, physical, psychological and psycho-social environment. Todays digital technology bringing lots of myths and directing youths from the thrust (itÃ¢â¬â¢s a reaction force) areas of education. Its not always easy to ask for what you want where sex is concerned? And if were naturally shy, it can feel almost impossible. Shyness in the bedroom is common for many people, particularly with women. When its present the result is always the same-physically relating to another person becomes difficult. If it isnt corrected early on, the foundation of a relationship can weaken, leading to sexual frustration, arguments, cheating or worse a broken love affair. By its very character, sexual shyness acts as a barrier that keeps two people at a distance. Kaustav. C and Guha. T. R, in their review article on Indian concepts on sexuality in Jan 2013, published in Indian Journal of Psychiatry mentions about Sexuality in Adolescence and Young Adulthood that, Indian children are pampered as much as possible, often until age 6 or 7. Before puberty, a natural approach to sexuality and nudity prevails, especially in rural areas. Daughters and sons are carefully prepared for their future domestic roles as mothers and fathers. Women are considered to be much more skilled than males in love and sexual pleasures. At puberty, most boys and girls are segregated. In some regions of India, pubescent girls are not even allowed to enter a house where a single young man is present. Masturbation is generally unacceptable among girls. For boys however, it is considered a preparation for mature sex life. Though boys at the younger ages may masturbate together without shame, at little more mature ages, they all give it up. Among adolescents, Reddy et al, i n a 1983 study found that the sample youth had their first sexual experience between the ages of 15 and 24 years. Homosexual activities were also reported in this study: 38% of women in the sample reported that their first sexual activity had been with a partner of the same sex. Traditionally, premarital sex activity was controlled in India. As the marriages were mostly arranged by elders, premarital sex was not the accepted practice. Although premarital sex among the tribal societies of India has been widely reported, there is very little if any reliable data on this topic in either the rural or urban areas. A study by Savara and Sridhar in 1992 showed that 30% of the respondents had experienced premarital sex, while 41% of unmarried men and 33% of married men had their first intercourse before attaining 20 years. Stephanie S. L, Larry J. N, Franklin O. P, Brian J. W. conducted a study on Emerging Adult Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors, Does Shyness Matter? in 2013 at Brigham Young University. According to study Ã¢â¬Å"Numerous studies have shown how shyness affects individuals in childhood and adolescence. However, little is known about the effects shyness may have in emerging adulthood. This study addressed how shyness may be associated with sexual attitudes and behaviors of emerging adult men and women. Participants included 717 students from four college sites across the United States, who were largely female (69%), European American (69%), unmarried (100%), and living outside their parents home (90%). Results suggested that shyness was positively associated with sexual attitudes (reflecting more liberal views) for men whereas shyness was negatively associated with sexual attitudes for women. Shyness was positively associated with solitary sexual behaviors of masturbation and pornography use for men. Shyness was also negatively associated with relational sexual behaviors (coital and non coital) and number of lifetime partners for womenÃ¢â¬ . Need for the Study The children of today are not the children of yesterday. Growth in terms of maturity and knowledge can be seen on a large scale for the adolescent population of today. Notions and ideas about sexuality were a prohibited topic till long time back but now adolescents are much aware and filled with various kinds of knowledge on the same. Researchers have shown that parents play the most significant role in imparting sex education to their adolescent children. They have been found to be the primary sex educators where basic and the initial knowledge about sexual attitudes and the like are conveyed on to the children. India is a multi-culture country, here perspectives differs from region to region and even socio-economic wise also. The young adults who comes from these various background mixes up in educational institutions, their knowledge and perceptions are been shared which leads to change in attitude towards a concept. With emerging westernization, there is growing concern about sex ual promiscuity and changing attitude towards sexuality. Aim: The present study aims in knowing the attitudes of young adults towards the concept of sex, myths associated with it due to lack of knowledge and their relationship with shyness. Objectives: To study the knowledge, attitude about sexuality and shyness among young adults. To study the effect of shyness and its relationship to the knowledge and attitude towards sexuality. To study the influence of demographic variables (Gender, Developmental Span, Area, Medium of Instruction and Exposure to Digital Technology) on a) Knowledge, b) Sexuality and c) Shyness. Hypotheses: Young adults differ in terms of knowledge, attitude towards sexuality and shyness. Shyness leads to lesser knowledge and unfavorable attitude towards sexuality. Demographic variables (Gender, Developmental Span, Area, Medium of Instruction, and Exposure to Digital Technology) have significant influence on a) Knowledge, b) Sexuality and c) Shyness. Sample: 600 both male and female young adults (18-25 years) from different colleges of Mysore City will be included for the present study. Participating in the study was voluntary and the questionnaire will be filled in anonymously. Tools: A semi-structured socio-demographic profile to ascertain the socio-demographic details shall be used. Sex Myth Check List by S.P. Kumar: This is a test with 23 highly sensitive items in Yes/No format and reveals the mythical relations to sex among both the sex. This test is developed on 18-25 year population. The test-retest reliability has been found to be .70 (N=30) with one weeks time interval, showing that the check-list is fairly dependable in terms of stability of scores in table. Showing Test-Retest Reliability The face validity of the check-list appears to be fairly high as the myth items were prepared following intensive interviews of 25 college-going students regarding their conceptions or misconceptions about different aspects of sexuality. The content validity was adequately assured as only those myth items were initially included in the myth check-list which had shown 100 per cent agreement amongst the judges. Of theses, only those myth items which showed a high discriminating value (.26 or above) following item-analysis were finally selected for the check-list. On the assumption that the low myth Ss would show better mental health as compared to the high myth Ss, a group of 54 Ss 27 Being high myth and 27 being low myth Ss were administered the Mental Health Check-list (Kumar, 1992). As hypothesized the low myth Ss scored significantly higher on the mental health measure, showing that they possessed better mental health as compared to the high myth Ss. Sexual Attitude Scales (SAS) by Amit Abraham: The Sexual Attitude Sclaes (S.A.S) has been developed for the exclusive purpose of research work in the area of human sexuality. The SAS provide for measures of attitude in five areas of human sexuality, viz., Attitude Towards Premarital Sex (PSS); Attitude Towards Polygamy (PS); Attitude Towards Pornography (PGS); Attitude Towards Lesbianism (LS) Ã¢â¬â for women only and Attitude Towards Homosexuality (HS) Ã¢â¬â for men only. The reliability was worked out by both the split-half and test-retest method) 3 months interval between retesting) for each of the SAS. Table shows the reliability for each scale. Showing Test Re-Test and Split Half Reliability The face validity of the scales is fairly high as the items were prepared after intensive discussion with various men and women and after survey of available literature on male and female sexuality. The content validity was adequately assured as only items which showed cent per cent agreement amongst the judges regarding their relevance to sexuality study were selected. Of these, only those items which had high t-value (greater than 1.75, Edwards, 1969) following item analysis were finally selected. Shyness scale: The shyness assessment test was developed by DSouza (2006) of Maharajas College, University of Mysore. It consists of 54 items and requires the subject to indicate his/her response by marking Yes, No or Cant say. The items in the test pertain to three domains of Shyness: Cognitive/Affective (32 items), Physiological and Action oriented program resulted in Cornbachs alpha coefficient of 0.817 for the Indian population. Further, the scale had sufficiently high validity. SAT is developed exclusively on Indian adolescents by DSouza (2006). The reliability index ascertained by split half (odd-even) method and Cronbachs alpha coefficient for the scale as a whole were found to be 0.735 and 0.812 respectively. The reliability indices of the 3 domains were also calculated by split half method which are as follows: Reliability Indices of Three Domains Methodology: Pilot study on 60 samples on younger adults aged between 18-25 years done before the Main study. After obtaining Informed consent from the participants, young adults from different colleges of Mysore City shall be assessed with the tools mentioned for relationship of knowledge, attitude towards sex and shyness. Statistical Methods: The following statistical techniques will be used for analysis and interpretation of data: Descriptive Statistics, t test Independent Samples, ANOVA One way/two way, Correlation Pearsons Product Moment and 5.Regression Stepwise Multiple. Chapterization: The entire research work will run into five chapters. The first one on Introduction brings out the importance of the study, and states its objectives and hypotheses. It also includes methodology and limitations. Chapter II will contain previous reviews, history of the Problems. A Quick look on subjective well-being will also be carried out in chapter II. Chapter III will be a methodological part of the study. Analysis and Discussions is to be done in Chapter IV. Findings, Conclusions and Suggestions for further Research will be presented in Chapter V followed by Bibliography and References. References: Canadian Living, How to overcome shyness when it comes to sex, http://www.canadianliving.com/relationships/sex/how to overcome shyness when it comes to sex.php Newfriends4u, Sexual Shyness, http://www.newfriends4u.com/relationships/sexual shyness.html Resource Center for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention, Learning Activities, Sex and Sexuality: Understanding the Difference, http://recapp.etr.org/recapp/index.cfm?fuseaction=pages.LearningActivitiesDetailPageI D=167 Crime in India 2011 Statistics, National Crime Records Bureau, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. http://ncrb.nic.in Kaustav. C and Guha. T. R, Indian concepts on sexuality, Indian J Psychiatry. Jan 2013; 55(Suppl 2): S250-S255. doi: 10.4103/00195545.105546. Stephanie S. L, Larry J. N, Franklin O. P, Brian J. W, Emerging Adult Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors, Does Shyness Matter?, Sage Journals, Emerging Adulthood September 2013 vol. 1 no. 3 185195, doi: 10.1177/2167696813475611. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Attitude (psychology)oldid=629345408 Fisher, T. D., Davis, C. M., Yarber, W. L., Davis, S. L. (2010). Handbook of Sexuality-Related Measures. New York: Routledge. Shyness: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shyness Ind Psychiatry J. 2010 Jul-Dec; 19(2): 90-93. DOI: 10.4103/0972-6748.90337
Saturday, January 18, 2020
During respiration, hydrogen atoms are removed from glucose molecules by enzymes called dehydrogenases and passed to various chemicals called hydrogen acceptors. As the hydrogen atoms pass from one hydrogen acceptor to another, energy is made available for chemical reactions in the cell. In this way, substances such as glucose provide energy for vital reactions in living organisms. In this experiment, a dye called methylene blue acts as an artificial hydrogen acceptor. When this dye is reduced by accepting hydrogen atoms it goes colourless. (a) Place about 30 mm of yeast suspension in a test-tube and, using a test-tube holder, heat this suspension over a small Bunsen flame until the liquid boils for about half a minute. Then cool the tube under the tap. (b) Label three test-tubes 1-3. (c) Using a graduated pipette or syringe, place 2 cm3 of the boiled yeast suspension in tube 1. (d) Using the graduated pipette or syringe, draw up 4 cm3 unboiled yeast suspension and place 2 cm3 in tube 2 and 2 cm3 in tube 3. (e) Rinse the pipette or syringe and use it to place 2 cm3 distilled water in tubes 1 and 2. (f) With the pipette or syringe, place 2 cm3 1 % glucose solution in tube 3. (g) Prepare a water bath by mixing hot and cold water from the tap to obtain a temperature between 35 and 45 Ã °C. Place all three tubes in this water bath. Rinse the pipette or syringe. (h) Copy the table given below into your notebook. (i) After 5 minutes draw up 6 cm3 methylene blue solution in the pipette or syringe and place 2 cm3 in each tube. Shake all three tubes thoroughly and return them to the water bath, noting the time as you do so. Do not shake the tubes again. (j) Watch the tubes to see how long it takes for the blue colour to disappear, leaving the creamy colour of the yeast. A thin film of blue colour at the surface of the tube may be ignored but the tubes should not be moved. Record the times in your table. (k) The experiment may be repeated by simply shaking all the tubes again until the blue colour returns. |Tube |Contents |Time for methylene blue to go colourless Experiment 14. Discussion 1 Why was distilled water added to tubes 1 and 2? 2 What causes the methylene blue solution to go colourless (according to the introduction on p. 14.01)? 3 How do you explain the results with tube 1? 4 In which of tubes 2 and 3 was the methylene blue decolourized more rapidly? How can this result be explained? 5 If the hydrogen atoms for the reduction of methylene blue come fromÃ glucose, why should the methylene blue in tube 2 become decolourized at all? 6 What do you think would be the effect of increasing the glucose concentration in tube 3? Explain your answer. 7 How could you extend the experiment to see if enzymes in yeast are capable of reducing methylene blue? 8 Why, do you think, the colour retuned on shaking the tubes? Experiment 14. Dehydrogenase in yeast Ã¢â¬â preparation Outline Methylene blue, acting as a hydrogen acceptor, is decolourized during the respiration of yeast. Addition of small amounts of substrate increases the rate of decolourization. Prior knowledge An elementary idea of respiration as a process which releases energy during the breaking down of carbohydrates; yeast is a microscopic living organism. Advance preparation and materials-per group 20% yeast suspension* 0.005% methylene blue solution+ (prepared 1~2 days ahead) 10 cm3 1 % glucose solution distilled water 10 cm3 Apparatus-per group test-tube rack and 4 test-tubes Bunsen burner 3 labels or spirit marker graduated pipette or syringe 5-10cm3 test-tube holder beaker or jar, for water to rinse pipette or syringe -per class clock Result The methylene blue: in tubes 2 and 3 should be decolourized in a few minutes with tube 3 changing first. * Add 40 g dried yeast and 0.4 g potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) to 200 cm3 distilled water in a tall 600 cm3 (or larger) beaker (a large jam jar will do). Cover the mouth of the container with aluminium foil and bubble air through the yeast suspension for one or two days using an aquarium aerator. Observe the suspension from time to time during the first two hours and control the air flow to prevent the yeast suspension frothing out of the jar. +Dissolve 0.05 g in 1 litre of distilled water. Methylene blue stains skin and clothing. Lab coats should be worn Experiment 14. Discussion Ã¢â¬â answers 1 The addition of distilled water to tubes 1 and 2 keeps the concentration of yeast and methylene blue the same in all three tubes. 2 The methylene blue accepts hydrogen atoms removed from glucose molecules during respiration. The reduced form of methylene blue is colourless. 3 Boiling will have killed the yeast. Dead yeast is therefore incapable of carrying out one or more stages in the transfer of hydrogen from glucose to methylene blue. (A similar answer may be given in terms of enzymes.) 4 Tube 3 will probably lose its blue colour first. Presumably if the hydrogen atoms for reducing methylene blue come from glucose, additional glucose will mean that more hydrogen atoms are available and decolourization will be more rapid. 5 Respiration will continue in yeast cells, using their own carbohydrate reserves such as glycogen. 6 It might be expected that increasing the glucose concentration would increase the rate of decolourization up to the point where all the available enzyme or enzymes were being used, or where the concentration of glucose was sufficient to plasmolyse the yeast cells. 7 If enzymes (dehydrogenases) are involved, it should be possible to extract them from yeast by grinding some dried yeast with sand and distilled water, and filtering. This could be the subject of further experiment, particularly if little or none of the carbohydrate reserve in yeast comes through in the filtrate. 8 Shaking the tubes introduces more oxygen which re-oxidises the methylene blue
Thursday, January 9, 2020
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